The concepts embodied in this design proved to offer excellent performance in both base-load and peak-shaving modes and the concept was soon being installed at numerous sites throughout the world.
Over 30 years ago, Kaldair developed a novel design for a submerged combustion LNG Vaporizer. The concepts embodied in this design proved to offer excellent performance in both base-load and peak-shaving modes and the concept was soon being installed at numerous sites throughout the world.
How It Works
Submerged combustion combines the safety of steam heating with the quick response characteristics of a direct-fired heater. Rather than compromising thermal efficiency or temperature uniformity, this combination actually out-performs either approach on its own.
Kaldair TX LNG Vaporizers do not employ true submerged combustion (combustion of a fuel-air mix under the surface of a liquid) but the products of combustion are exhausted directly into the base of a tank filled with water. Within the tank is housed the heat exchanger tube coil, through which the LNG is pumped. Sparging the hot combustion gases through the tank raises the water temperature and thus, via the heat exchanger tube coil, heats the LNG.
The large volumes of hot gas, broken up into small bubbles by the spargers, produce an upsurge of water in the vessel and this is allowed to flow over a weir into the system's water reservoir. From here it recirculates into the base of the exchanger vessel to be mixed with the hot products of combustion once more. Since the product of hydrocarbon combustion is water and this is condensed on entry into the exchanger vessel, releasing its heat of latent vaporization, net thermal efficiencies in excess of 100% can be achieved.
The TX burner is partially submerged and on start-up, water is purged from the burner and combustion is initiated. The combustion products are then injected into the base of the water bath via a special distribution system. Due to its position, the combustion chamber can be cooled by water circulated from the reservoir that also supplies the exchanger vessel.
A Nod To The Environment
Environmental considerations are increasingly important, and these have not been overlooked.
The excellent combustion characteristics of the novel, all-metal TX burner offer significantly lower NOX levels than traditional refractory-lined, nozzle mix burners usually employed in this type of application. This is due to the progressive mixing and combustion which occurs in the central cone of the burner, together with the proven water injection system further reducing NOX emissions.
Kaldair, 15810 Park Ten Place, Suite 195, Houston, TX, 77084. Phone: 281-492-2262; Fax: 281-492-2399.